Solid Waste Management E-Waste Management Treatments Methods for Waste Management


India has emerged as the world’s fifth largest electronic waste (e-waste) producer. India discards roughly 18.5 lakh tonnes of e-waste each year and telecom equipment alone accounts for 12% of it.   ‘Wastes’ are materials which are discarded after use at the end of their intended life-span. Waste management is a collective activity involving segregation, … Continue reading Solid Waste Management E-Waste Management Treatments Methods for Waste Management

Surface and Groundwater Degradation & Pollution


India consists 1/25th of world’s water resources. The total utilizable water resources of the country are assessed as 1086 km3. A brief description of surface and groundwater water resources of India is given below. Surface Water Resource India’s average annual surface run-off generated by rainfall and snowmelt is estimated to be about 1869 Billion Cubic … Continue reading Surface and Groundwater Degradation & Pollution

Land Degradation, Soil Erosion and Deforestation


Land Degradation Land degradation is the process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of soil. The causes of land degradation can be divided into natural hazards, direct causes, and underlying causes. Natural hazards are the conditions of the physical environment which lead to the existence of a high degradation hazard, for example steep … Continue reading Land Degradation, Soil Erosion and Deforestation

Carbon Sources & Sequestration


Carbon sink & source A carbon sink is anything that absorbs more carbon that it releases, while a carbon source is anything that releases more carbon than is absorb Forests, soils, oceans and the atmosphere all store carbon and this carbon moves between them in a continuous cycle. This constant movement of carbon means that forests act as sources or … Continue reading Carbon Sources & Sequestration

Greenhouse Effect & Greenhouse Gases


The exchange of incoming and outgoing radiation that warms the Earth is often referred to as the greenhouse effect because a greenhouse works in much the same way. Incoming UV radiation easily passes through the glass walls of a greenhouse and is absorbed by the plants and hard surfaces inside. Weaker IR radiation, however, has … Continue reading Greenhouse Effect & Greenhouse Gases

Pollution – Water & Air


Water Pollutants Sources – community waste water, Industrial waste, Agricultural chemicals waste, Thermal & nuclear pollution, Oil spills, Radioactive dump waste, Groundwater seepage etc. Sudden rise in water temperature due to thermal pollution, which uses water as coolant & releases hot water to source, kills aquatic animals as they have a very narrow tolerance limit … Continue reading Pollution – Water & Air