UPSC

1.0  Civil Services Exams (CSE) → IAS Exams

Civil Services Exams (CSE)

  • Though popularly known as ‘IAS exam’, the official name of the exam is UPSC Civil Services Exam.
  • The Civil Services Examination of India is considered to be one of the most difficult and competitive examinations in India
  • UPSC conducts Civil Service Exams for Central Government job vacancies
  • On an average, 9 to 10 lakh candidates apply every year and the number of candidates appearing is roughly 4 to 5 lakh for the examination
  • The entire process from the notification of the Preliminary examination to declaration of the final results takes roughly one year

 


What are Civil Services

  • Jobs directly related with public service viz. IAS, IFS, IPS, IRS among others
  • There are about 24 services which come under the Civil Services Exam conducted by UPSC every year viz.
  • Indian Administrative Service
  • Indian Foreign Service
  • Indian Police Service
  • Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’
  • Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’
  • Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager, Administration)
  • Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’
  • Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’
  • Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’
  • Indian Trade Service, Group ‘A’ (Gr. III)
  • Indian Corporate Law Service, Group “A”
  • Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade)
  • Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group ‘B’
  • Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group ‘B’
  • Pondicherry Civil Service, Group ‘B’
  • Pondicherry Police Service, Group ‘B’.

 


1.1  Frequently Asked Questions on UPSC Civil Service Exams

1.1.0  What is Civil Services Exams (CSE)?

Though popularly known as ‘IAS exam’, the official name of the exam is UPSC Civil Services Exam. The Civil Services Examination of India is considered to be one of the most difficult and competitive examinations in India. UPSC conducts Civil Service Exams for Central Government job vacancies IAS, IPS, IRS etc.

 

1.1.1  What is IAS?

IAS is the short form of Indian Administrative Service. It is one of the prestigious services among the 24 services like IPS, IFS etc for which the UPSC conduct Civil Services Examination (CSE) for selecting the candidates.

 

1.1.2  How to become an IAS officer?

Even though the exam to be undertaken is popularly known as IAS exam, it is officially called UPSC Civil Services Exam. The UPSC CSE consists of 3 stages – Prelims, Mains, and Interview. After clearing all three stages a candidate is eligible for civil services.

 

1.1.3  Civil Services Examination (CSE)

UPSC is the government agency responsible for selecting the right candidates for this service. Every year only around 1000 candidates is selected for all the 24 services combined. The number of candidates who applied for UPSC Civil Service Exam was about 9 lakh in 2015, out of which around 4.5 lakh candidates appeared on the exam day.

This exam is widely considered as the toughest exam in the world, considering the exam duration (extends 1 year), depth of the syllabus and the competition involved. The first stage of the exam – Preliminary (objective) – is usually conducted around August, while the second stage, Mains (written), is conducted around December. Those who clear Mains will have to face interview/personality test during April-May period. The final result usually comes in June/July.

 

1.1.4  How to Clear Civil Services Exam?

To clear IAS Exam, aspirants are advised to have a long-term strategy. Though most of the serious candidates start preparation 9-12 months before the exam date, there are candidates who successfully achieve top ranks with only a few months of dedicated study. So what matters is not the duration of the preparation, but the quality of the same.

A disciplined and focused mind with a passion for learning and reading is the basic trait of all successful candidates. The UPSC Civil Services exam is more a test of the analytic and presentation skills along with knowledge gained by the candidate rather than a test which checks candidate’s mathematical or verbal skills.

 

1.1.5  Coachings vs Self Study?

When it pours down to this particular question one thing I must clear you that coachings are utter waste of your time. They don’t teach anything new & refer the same standard books that you do. You just need to get your basics right to master civil services examination which can be mastered well using abundant resources available at your disposal.

Preparing for UPSC requires a focused mind with the right approach viz. one must know what not to study in your whole 12 months span rather than what to study. At the most one shall join the test series to check how one stands with his preparation at a particular time but apart from that coachings will just squeeze you out with cash & fill you with tonnes of waste material, not necessary to clear UPSC.


1.1.6  What is the salary of an IAS officer?

IAS salary structure consists of different Pay Scales viz.

Junior Scale 0-4 years Pay Band Rs 15600-39100 plus Grade Pay Rs 5400
Senior Time Scale 4-9 years Pay Band Rs 15600-39100 plus Grade Pay Rs 6600
Junior Administrative Grade 9 years + Pay Band Rs 15600-39100 plus Grade Pay Rs 7600
Selection Grade 13 years + Pay Band Rs 37400-67000 plus Grade Pay Rs 8700
Super Time Scale 16 year + Pay Band Rs 37400-67000 plus Grade Pay Rs 10000
Above Super Time Scale 25 years+
  • Rs 37400-67000. Plus Grade Pay of Rs 12000.
  • The Apex Pay Scale of Rs 80000 (fixed). No Grade Pay.
  • Cabinet Secretary Grade of Rs 90000 (fixed). No Grade Pay

 

The above mentioned figures are basic salaries. You may also be entitled for HRA (40% of Basic or official accommodation), DA (the DA has increased from 72% in 2012 to 107% of of Basic Salary in 2015), TA etc. DA is revised on half yearly (January and July every year) basis depending on the inflation index. One can also expect further increase in package once the 7th pay commission reports are accepted.



2.0  Pattern of the Civil Service Examination (CSE)

The toughest aspect of this exam is that aspirants must complete a three-stage process, requiring in depth knowledge, rational thinking, drafting skills, creativity, language competency, and a can do empathetic personality.

IAS-EXAMINATIONS-IMAGE-e1456852265229

Stage 1 Preliminary Examination
  • Qualifying test held in August every year
  • Notification Around March
  • Result around Mid-October
Stage 2 Main Examination
  • Held Around December
  • Results are usually published in the second week of March
Stage 3 Interview
  • Also known as personality test
  • Held around April/May every year
  • Final results are out by June/July

Civil-Service-Examination-procedure


2.1  Civil Service Prelims Examination

  • From 2011 onwards, the Preliminary examination, is popularly known as the Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT)
  • Officially it is still called General Studies Paper-1 and General Studies Paper-2
  • Intends to focus on analytical abilities and understanding rather than the ability to memorize
  • The marks in prelims are not counted for final ranking, but just for qualification for main exam
  • The questions are objective in nature.
  • There are two papers in Civil Service Prelims Examination viz.
Paper 1 2 Hours
  • Tests the candidate’s knowledge on current events
  • Deals with subjects like History, Geography, Polity, Economics etc.
Paper 2 2 Hours
  • Deals with subjects like Mental Ability, English Comprehension etc.
  • Analysis logical reasoning, analytical ability, decision making, problem solving ability of a candidate
  • In May 2015, the Government of India announced that Paper II of Preliminary Examination(CSAT) will be of qualifying in nature
  • Means it wouldn’t be graded for eligibility in Mains Examination

 


2.2  Prelims Merit Process

  • The Commission draws a list of candidates to be qualified for Civil Service (Main) Examination based on the criterion of –
  • minimum qualifying marks of 33% in General Studies Paper II of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination and;
  • total qualifying marks of General Studies Paper-I of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination as may be determined by the Commission.

 


2.3  Civil Service Mains Examination

  • UPSC Civil Services Main Examination as per revised syllabus consists of 9 papers.
  • Marks of 7 out of these 9 papers will be counted for final ranking, while 2 papers (Paper A & Paper B) will be of qualifying nature.
  • Questions are subjective in nature
  • The range of questions may vary from just one mark to sixty marks, twenty words to 600 words answers
  • Candidates who pass qualifying papers are ranked according to marks and a selected number of candidates are called for interview or a personality test at the Commission’s discretion

 


2.4  Civil Services Mains Format

Papers Subject Marks
Paper A One of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution 300
Paper B English 300
Paper 1 Essay 250
Paper 2 General Studies I ((Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society) 250
Paper 3 General Studies II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations) 250
Paper 4 General Studies III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management) 250
Paper 5 General Studies IV(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 250
Paper 6 – 7 Any one subject (having 2 papers) to be selected from the prescribed optional subjects (250 marks for each paper) 500
Sub Total (Written Test) 1750

2.5  Qualifying Papers of Civil Services Mains

 Paper A – Indian Language 
Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindi
Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Malayalam
Manipuri Marathi Nepali Oriya
Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Tamil
Telugu Urdu Bodo Dogri
Maithilli Santhali    
  • The qualifying paper on Indian Languages will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard.
  • The marks obtained in this paper will not be counted for ranking.
  • The aim of the paper is to test the candidates’ ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.
  • Minimum marks needed is 30%
  • Paper A will not be compulsory for candidates hailing from the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim

 

Paper B – English
  • Qualifying in nature – Marks not counted – Passing mandatory (approx. 30%)
  • The aim of the paper is to test the candidates’ ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.

 

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows –

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Precise Writing
  • Usage and Vocabulary
  • Short Essay
  • Translation from English to the Indian language and vice‐versa

 


2.6 List of optional subjects for Main Examination

Agriculture Geography Physics Chemistry Management
Animal Husbandry Geology PSIR Civil Engineering Mathematics
Anthropology History Psychology Commerce Mechanical Engineering
Botany Law Pub Ad Economics Medical Science
Electrical Engineering Statistics Sociology Zoology Philosophy
Languages Optional
Assamese Bengali Hindi Konkani
Marathi Nepali Santhali Telugu
Bodo Dogri Kannada Maithili
Oriya Punjabi Sindhi Urdu
Malayalam Gujarati Kashmiri Manipuri
English Sanskrit Tamil
Note You can opt for the literatures of a language as an optional subject, only if you have graduated in the literature of that particular language as the main subject.

2.7 Civil Services Interview – 275 Marks

  • Officially called the “Personality Test”, the objective of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service
  • The test is intended to evaluate the mental calibre of a candidate
  • In broad terms, this is really an assessment of not only a candidate’s intellectual qualities, but also social traits and interest in current affairs
  • Candidate can give preference of the language in which they may like to be interviewed Final ranks are calculated by adding Mains (Out of 1750) and Interview marks (Out of 275)
  • Hence the rank list is prepared based on marks scored out of 2025

 

3.0 Eligibility Criteria – Civil Services Exams (CSE)

Nationality

  • For the Indian Administrative Service, the Indian Foreign Service and the Indian Police Service, a candidate must be a citizen of India.
  • For the Indian Revenue Service, a candidate must be one of the following –
  • a citizen of India
  • a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia or Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India
  • For other services, a candidate must be one of the following –
  • a citizen of India
  • a citizen of Nepal or a subject of Bhutan
  • a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia or Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India

 


Education

  • All candidates must have a minimum of any of the following educational qualifications
  • A degree from a Central, State or Deemed university
  • A degree received through Correspondence Education or Distance
  • A degree from an Open University
  • A qualification recognized by the Government of India as being equivalent to either of the above
  • The following candidates are also eligible, but have to submit proof of their eligibility from a competent authority at their institute/university at the time of the main examination, failing which they will not be allowed to attend the exam
  • Candidates who have appeared in an examination, the passing of which would render them educationally qualified enough to satisfy any of the above points
  • Candidates who have passed the final exam of the MBBS degree but have not yet completed their internship
  • Candidates who have passed the Final exam of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India(ICAI), ICSI and ICWAI
  • A degree from a private university A degree from any foreign university recognized by Association of Indian Universities

 


Minimum age – Calculated on the date Aug 1

  • The minimum age to appear for IAS Exam is 21 years.
  • This means that the candidate must have at-least 21 years of age on 1st August of that given year when the exam is held.

 


Maximum Age – Calculated on the date Aug 1

Category Maximum Age
General 32 years
OBC 35 years
SC/ST 37 Years
Physically disabled – Blind, deaf-mute and Orthopedically handicapped persons 42 years
Citizens of Jammu and Kashmir
  • 37 years for General
  • 40 years for OBC
  • 42 years for SC/ST
  • 50 years for PH
Defense Services personnel disabled in operations
  • 35 years for General
  • 38 years for OBC
  • 40 years for SC/ST
Ex-servicemen who have rendered at least five years Military Service
  • 37 years for General
  • 40 years for OBC
  • 42 years for SC/ST

 


Max. No. of Attempts

Category Attempts
General 6 attempts till 32 years of age
OBC 9 attempts till 35 years of age
SC/ST Unlimited attempts till 37 years of age
Physically disabled – Blind, deaf-mute and Orthopedically handicapped persons 9 attempts till 42 years of age

 

However these candidates are requested to bear in mind –

  • An attempt at a Preliminary Examination shall be considered to be an attempt at the Examination.
  • If a candidate actually appears in any one paper in the Preliminary Examination, he/she shall be deemed to have made an attempt at the Examination.
  • Not withstanding the disqualification/cancellation of candidature, the fact of appearance of the candidate at the examination will count as an attempt.
  • Candidates just applied but did not appear is not counted as an attempt.

 


 

UPSC Syllabus – Civil Services Prelims, Mains & Interview

UPSC Syllabus – Civil Services Prelims

UPSC Syllabus for Paper I – (200 marks) Duration: Two hours (Counted for the merit rank in the Prelims)

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.

 

UPSC Syllabus for Paper II- (200 marks) Duration: Two hours (Not counted for the merit rank in Prelims but a qualifying Paper; just needs 33% marks)

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  • Decision-making and problem-solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level)
  • Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level).

UPSC-Syllabus


UPSC Syllabus – Civil Services Mains

  • A candidate’s rank inUPSC Civil Service Exam depends only on the mark scored in Main and Interview.
  • The main exam has 1750 marks while interview has 275 marks.
  • The written examination (main) will consist of the following nine papers, but only 7 papers will be counted for final merit ranking.
  • For the rest two papers, the candidate should secure minimum marks prescribed by UPSC each year.

UPSC-New-Pattern-Weightage1


Qualifying Papers – Not counted for final ranking

Paper  A – Indian Language – 300 Marks 

  • One of the Indian Languages to be selected by the candidate from the Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.
  • This paper will not be compulsory for candidates hailing from the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim.) 300 Marks.

 

Paper B – English Language – 300 Marks 

  • Qualifying in nature – Marks not counted – Passing mandatory (approx. 30%)
  • The aim of the paper is to test the candidates’ ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.

 

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows –

  • Comprehension of given passages.
  • Precise Writing
  • Usage and Vocabulary
  • Short Essay
  • Translation from English to the Indian language and vice‐versa

 


Papers to be counted for merit ranking

PaperI Essay – 250 Marks 

  • To be written in the medium or language of the candidate’s choice
  • Candidates will be required to write an essay on a specific topic
  • The choice of subjects will be given
  • They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely
  • Credit will be given for effective and exact expression 

 

PaperII General Studies – I → 250 Marks (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes. 

 

PaperIII General Studies –II  → 250 Marks (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations) 

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

 

PaperIV General Studies –III → 250 Marks. (Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

  • Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. & Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

 

PaperV General Studies – IV → 250 Marks. (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.
  • Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues

 

PaperVI Optional Subject – Paper 1 – 250 Marks 

PaperVII Optional Subject – Paper 2 – 250 Marks


UPSC Syllabus – Civil Services Interview

  • The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his/her career.
  • He/she will be asked questions on matters of general interest.
  • The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers.
  • The test is intended to judge the mental calibre of a candidate.
  • In broad terms, this is really an assessment of not only his/her intellectual qualities but also social traits and his/her interest in current affairs.
  • Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, balance of judgment, variety and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.
  • The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though directed and purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.
  • The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialised or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers.
  • Candidates are expected to have taken an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own state or country as well as in modern currents of thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well-educated youth.

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