Telecommunication Technology


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• The telecom services have been recognized the world-over as an important tool for socio-economic development for a nation.

• It is one of the prime support services needed for rapid growth and modernization of various sectors of the economy.

The two telecom technologies are:

GSM
• GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world.
• GSM uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA).
• GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot.
• It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band.
• The key advantage of GSM systems to consumers has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls, such as the Short message service (SMS, also called “text messaging”).

CDMA

Code-Division Multiple Access is a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques.
• Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA employs analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in combination with spread spectrum technology. Audio input is first digitized into binary elements.
• The frequency of the transmitted signal is then made to vary according to a defined pattern (code), so it can be intercepted only by a receiver whose frequency response is programmed with the same code.
• CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies, allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time.
• The technology is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) cellular telephone systems in the 800-MHz and 1.9-GHz bands.

Different Telecom Technologies
1. VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
• VOIP is IP enabled voice calling technology over internet. Example: Skype, Yahoo messenger, MSN messenger.
• It requires broadband connectivity to make a call along with IP enables devices like Computers, Smartphone etc.
• The voice is converted into digital packets and transmitted to destination over packet switched network.

2. IPTV
• IPTV is new generation TV that communicates over Internet protocol in the form of packets rather than signals in normal TV’s.
• It has 3 components: IPTV where content is encoded and decoded; Delivery Network over which information in the form of packets is transmitted; Setup Box which is communication link between operator’s broadband modem and customer’s TV. Also packets delivered are reassembled here.
• IPTV enables two-way interactivity, in contrast to traditional one way cable or satellite broadcast network. The two-way IPTV network means viewers have more options to personalize interact and control their viewing experience.
• Because IPTV is based on internet protocol, it is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the IPTV connection is not fast enough.

3. Near Field Communication (NFC)
• It’s a new standard of wireless communication.
• It enables users to transmit radio frequency wave over a very short distance just about few centimeters
• Since it’s a very short range communication, power consumption is very negligible or no power consumption.
• It can transfer low amount of data between devices enabled with NFC
• No need of pairing the devices, its ready to use at just a click or swipe.
NFC-based wallet, Mobo Money launched- Tech Mahindra, the Tech & Software development arm of Mahindra Group, announced launch of Mobo-Money, a NFC based, contactless digital payment ecosystem. Mobo Money will be the first commercial roll-out of NFC (Near Field Communication) for an ecosystem. The company aims to get about one million merchants including local kirana shop owners on board.

4. Li-Fi
• Li-Fi means light fidelity
• Li-Fi is a wireless communication, high speed and bidirectional.
• It’s similar to WiFi but not a radio frequency wave communication.
• It’s a visual light communication where visible light has the capacity to transmit the data.
• A dedicated LED light so developed emits a visible range light. The reach of light is the range of Li-Fi communication.
• Internet connectivity would become more simple and high bandwidth of Li-Fi can render cost effective and efficient data communication.
• Most importantly Li-Fi is high security benefits. Light communication can’t be intercepted unlike electromagnetic waves. Hence its secure mode of communication.
• Since light can’t pass through obstacles like walls and barriers, Li- Fi can’t work beyond it. It limited to visible range of light.
• It provides one point solution to signal solution. In offices a merely LED bulb can work as network generator.

5. Bluetooth technology
• Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400-2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating Personal Area Networks (PANs) with high levels of security.
List of applications

– Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands free headset
– Wireless Bluetooth headset and Intercom.
– Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.
– Wireless communication with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer.
– Transfer of files, contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices with OBEX.

6. Wi-Fi technology
• Wi-Fi is a mechanism for wirelessly connecting electronic devices.
• A device such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone, or digital audio player, when enabled with WiFi, can connect to the Internet via a wireless network access point.
• Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection.
• It uses radio frequency (RF) technology, RF being a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation.
• Wi-Fi is supported by many applications and devices including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs, mobile phones, major operating systems, and other types of consumer electronics.
• Wi-Fi allows cheaper deployment of local Area Networks (LANs). Products designated as “Wi-Fi Certified” by the Wi-Fi Alliance are backward compatible. Unlike mobile phones, any standard Wi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world.

7. WiMax technology
• WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless broadband technology, which supports point to multi-point (PMP) broadband wireless access.
• WiMax can provide Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 – 10 miles (5 – 15 km) for mobile stations.
• Uses of WiMax technology are:

– Providing portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries through a variety of devices.
– Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for “last mile” broadband access.
– Providing data, telecommunications (VoIP) and IPTV services (triple play).
– Providing a source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan.

8. AMOLED Display
• AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) is a display technology for use in mobile devices and televisions.
• OLED describes a specific type of thin-film-display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescent material, and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels.
• AMOLED technology is used in mobile phones, media players and digital cameras, and continues to make progress toward low-power, low-cost and large-size (for example, 40-inch) applications.
• The greatest advantage of AMOLED display is fast pixel switching response time that makes the display fit and efficient for animation.

9. 4G LTE Vs 4G WiMAX
• LTE stands for Long Term Evolution. It’s a first generation 4G technology termed as “true 4G”.
• WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access.
• They differ in their bandwidth; LTE has higher bandwidth than WiMAX.
• LTE is compatible with existing network but for WiMAX we need altogether new network.
• The cost of installation of LTE is more than WiMAX.
• Overall LTE is gaining popularity and hopes to existing 4G technology in coming years.

10. LTE – Long Term Evolution
• LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a wireless broadband technology designed to support roaming Internet access via cell phones and handheld devices.
• With its architecture based on Internet Protocol (IP) unlike many other cellular Internet protocols, Long Term Evolution supports browsing Web sites, VoIP and other IP-based services well.
• LTE can theoretically support downloads at 300 Megabits per second (Mbps) or more based on experimental trials.

11. WiBro
• WiBro (Wireless Broadband) is a wireless broadband Internet technology developed by the South Korean telecoms industry.
WiBro (Wireless Broadband) communication technique uses radio waves (frequency of 2.3 GHz) and allows a maximum theoretical speed of 30 megabits per second over a range between 1 and 5 kilometers.
WiBro is a wireless point to point communication technique, tailored to serve low-cost sparsely populated areas where the fiber is not an option.

12. GPRS
• General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users.
• GPRS facilitates instant connections whereby information can be sent or received immediately as the need arises, subject to radio coverage. No dial-up modem connection is necessary. This is why GPRS users are sometimes referred to be as being “always connected”.
• GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuit-switched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-use, as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated to only one user at a time.
• Packet switching means that GPRS radio resources are used only when users are actually sending or receiving data. Rather than dedicating a radio channel to a mobile data user for a fixed period of time, the available radio resource can be concurrently shared between several users.
• This efficient use of scarce radio resources means that large numbers of GPRS users can potentially share the same bandwidth and be served from a single cell.

13. WAP
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a secure specification that allows users to access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smartphones and communicators.
• WAP is supported by all operating systems WAPs that use displays and access the Internet are called micro-browsers i.e. browsers with small file sizes that can accommodate the low memory constraints of handheld devices and the low-bandwidth constraints of a wireless-handheld network.
• Although WAP supports HTML and XML, the WML language (Wireless Markup Language) is specifically devised for small screens and one-hand navigation without a keyboard.

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